Natural Timescales

19 June 2012

the development of time

Virolution was an eye-opener. It provided a view at new theories in various branches of biology, mostly dealing with viruses, genetics, and evolution, explained in such a way that I didn’t feel that an advanced degree in microbiology was necessary. Its focus is the role of viruses in genetics, heredity, and evolution. What I found most encouraging was my own paradigm shift: viruses aren’t evil parasites. Such a judgement results from experience with viral illnesses, and fearing pandemics. Although those are certainly a part of our relationship with viruses, it is a narrow view.

In some instances, the relationship is mutualistic-symbiosis.Who’da thought?

In and among the interviews and revelations, the Virolution got me thinking about our individual, cultural, and evolutionary bodies, and how we have perceived time over the long haul. The essential elements are: the period of the Year, Lunar orbit, and Earth’s rotation; the development of light-sensing organs; our reproduction and gestation periods, and; our cultural perception of time.

The Earth’s rotation around its axis has been slowing down since its creation 4.5 billion years or so ago. Shortly after its creation, the Earth rotated once every 6 hours, four times faster than now.

  • 4.5 billion years ago – it slowed to once every 10 hours
  • 4.0 billion years ago – once every 13.5 hours
  • 900 million years ago – once every 18.17 hours
  • 400 million years ago – once every 22 hours
  • 245 million years ago – once every 22.75 hours
  • 100 million years ago – once every 23.5 hours
  • today – once every 24 hours
  • 225 million years hence – 25 hours

1 second is added to our year every 62,500 Years or so.

source: Introducing Biological Rhythms

  • 3.8 billion years ago – simple cells
  • 3.4 billion years ago – photosynthesis
  • 1 billion years ago – multicellular life
  • 600 million years ago – animals
  • 500 million years ago – fish
  • 475 million years ago – terrestrial plants
  • 300 million years ago – reptiles
  • 200 million years ago – mammals
  • 150 million years ago – birds

The genus Homo developed some 2.4 million years ago, and Homo sapiens about 200,000 years ago. As early as 3.4 billion years ago, with the development of photosynthesis, life on Earth entered into an intimate relationship with the Sun’s light (its heat is a given), one that remains fundamentally important to all living things.

The life cycles of the oceans are tied in part to the phases of the Moon (29.53 Days), in part due to tidal action (12.4 hours). The sexual cycles of a variety of marine species are tied to the Full Moon, such as the palolo worm (on which the Trobriand Islanders base their lunar calendar). On a particular Full Moon, the worms teem at the ocean’s surface in a frenzy of reproduction.

There’s little doubt that our behaviour is still tied to the cycles of the Moon, despite how much we have removed ourselves from its influence.

Human Reproduction

Pregnancy and birth are likewise tied to the Moon. Granted there is a great deal of variability from one individual to another, however, menstruation is linked to the New Moon, ovulation to the Full Moon. Regardless, we gauged pregnancy by estimating 9 lunar months (266 days), although modern estimates put it at 40 weeks (280 days), and scheduling C-sections is a step further away from this link.

Nevertheless, natural birth often takes place at the New or Full Moon.

Our mother’s tie to the timing of the Day, the Year, and the Moon is the medium in which we gestate in the watery darkness of the womb. Our first perception of time as individuals comes from our mothers, our gestation, and our emergence into the world at birth.

Cultural Time

After our birth, our emergence into the world and first breath comes our education and acculturation. At some stage, we learn about the seasons, and the calendar or calendars in use. This is the final stage in our perception of time, beyond our evolution, beyond our gestation, or observation. We are tied to a particular notion of time, whether it be cyclical, such as the Chinese calendar, fractal, such as the Maya, or linear like the Gregorian.

There is also little doubt as too the fundamental role a calendar plays in one’s life. If you remain skeptical about this last point, suggest to someone they change their calendar, and see what reaction you get. Often, at least in my experience, it is equivalent to asking someone to change their language, their religion, or their hockey team. However, as it has become second nature, very seldom does anyone have a cogent argument. It is not an easy point of view to defend with logic, because it is so ingrained it would be like asking someone to change their internal organs.

Nevertheless, the fundamental timepieces in the longer view, the Earth’s rotation, the apparent motion of the Moon, the Sun, the Planets, and Stars are what we have in common. The particular ways in which we have chosen to organize these phenomena are key to our various traditions of cultural expression, and will continue for the foreseeable future.

theAbysmal Calendar is simply one more.

185 Days to Dec 21st 2012


Sleep, Alarms, and Social Jet-Lag

13 May 2012

how the clock can lead to obesity.

A new study has introduced yet another term and reason for alarm, and dare I say, panic. Panic now! The term is “social jetlag” and terms like these are enough to make the inner logophile take to the streets and riot.

 

Is Your Alarm Clock Making You Fat?

As if you needed another reason to despise your alarm clock. A new study suggests that, by disrupting your body’s normal rhythms, your buzzing, blaring friend could be making you overweight.

The study concerns a phenomenon called “social jetlag.” That’s the extent to which our natural sleep patterns are out of synch with our school or work schedules. Take the weekends: many of us wake up hours later than we do during the week, only to resume our early schedules come Monday morning. It’s enough to make your body feel like it’s spending the weekend in one time zone and the week in another.

But is social jetlag actually bad for your health? To investigate, chronobiologist Till Roenneberg at the University of Munich in Germany and colleagues compiled data from tens of thousands of responses to an internet survey on sleep patterns and other behaviors. Previous work with such data has already yielded some clues. “We have shown that if you live against your body clock, you’re more likely to smoke, to drink alcohol, and drink far more coffee,” says Roenneberg.

In the new study, the team measured the social jetlag of people ages 16 to 65 by calculating how offset sleep times were on workdays and non-workdays. They then constructed a mathematical model that gauged how well biological factors, such as age, gender, sleep duration, and social jet lag could predict body weight. They found that the first three factors were important predictors of body weight for all people. In addition, for people who are already on the heavy side, greater social jet lag corresponded to greater body weight. However, social jet lag was not a good predictor for people with normal body weights, the team reports online today in Current Biology.

(rest of the article via the link)

I know I’ve been struggling with this since my new contract has me up at 5 AM every Tuesday and Thursday, but not other days when my schedule is more flexible. My sleep has been badly disrupted, and I often find myself passing out in the middle of the afternoon for a couple of hours (and I’m typically not one to nap). The biggest disadvantage of social jetlag over regular jetlag is that it doesn’t reduce the rate at which you age. It’s lose-lose (except weight…)

Here’s are some typical examples of the time of day when good, bad, and ugly things typically occur:

222 Days to Dec 21st 2012


Rhythms of Life

22 February 2012

Book Notes on Chronobiology and Photoperiodism.

Rhythms of Life – the Biological Clocks that Control the Daily Lives of Every Living Thing (2004) by Russell G. Foster & Leon Kreitzman

p2 “The big difference between us and other living things is that to some extent we can cognitavely override these ancient hard-wired rhythms. Instead of sleeping as our bodies dictate, we drink another cup of coffee, turn up the radio, roll down the car window and kid ourselves that we can beat a few billion years of evolution.”

“When [daily circadian rhythm] is disrupted we suffer from the relatively mild symptoms of jet-lag through to serious and poetntially life threatening conditions such as depression and sleep disorders.”

p3 “[Biological clocks]… are reset at sunrise and sunset each day to link astronomical time with an organism’s internal time.”

p5 “All of us in the developed world now live in a ’24/7′ society. This imposed structure is in conflict with our basic biology. The impct can be seen in our struggle to balance our daily lives with the stresses this places on our physical health and mental well-being. We are now aware of this fundamental tension between the way we want to live and the way we are built to live.”

[see Colin Pittendrigh]

p38 “Every atom in our bodies is oscillating at around 1016 Hz.”

“The rods and cones in the retina respond to light oscillating at between 1015 – 1014 Hz. The brain’s electrical activity…has a frequency of 101 Hz… The heart beats at approimately 100 Hz…and respiration occurs at about one breath every six seconds.”

p97 “Although at some level everything about a simple living organism is implied in its genes, on the other hand, you really have to understand the products of the genes and how they interact, which is more complex than just knowing the sequence of the genes.” –Clyde Hutchenson (1999)

p102 “Anticipation is the key to…biological survival and hence success… The anticipation we are talking about is deeper and more profound because it tunes in an organism to its broader environment. Francois Jacob, one of the great pioneers of molecular biology, said, “one of the deepest, one of the most general functions of living organisms is to look ahead, to produce a future.”

p194-7

  • the VLPO (ventrolateral preoptic nucleus) of the anterior hypothalamus promotes sleep. Neurones from this nucleus release GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid), an inhibitory neurotransmitter of the nervous system. The neurones project to and inhibit the activity of the nuclei of the ascending arousal system, and the lateral hypothalamus (LH).
  • The ascending arousal system (AAS) of the brainstem and hypothalamus promotes wakefulness in the forebrain. Neurones from five regions in this complex (LDT, PPT, DR, LC, TMN) release several excitatory neurotransmiters. In the brainstem, neurones from teh LDT (laterodorsal tegmental nuclei) and PPT (pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei) project to the thalamus, and from there to the forebrain. These two nuclei are responsible for the release of acetylhoine. The LC (Locus coeruleus), also in the brainstem, has neurones that project the forebrain and release noradrenaline. the DR (dorsal raphe nucleus) of the brainstem has neurones that project to the forebrain and release serotonin In the hypothalamus, neurones from the TMN (tuberomammillary nucleus) project to the forebrain and release histamine.
  • The lateral hypothalamus also promotes wakefulness. Neurones from this nucleus release orexin (also called hypocretin), a very recently discovered neuropeptide. Neurones project to the nuclei of the ascending arousal system, the forebrain, as well as the VLPO.
  • The NREM/REM oscillator is a cluster of five separate nuclei in the brainstem that provides the switch between NREM and ReM sleep. Three of these nuclei, the LDT, PPT and BRF (brainstem reticular formation), are interconnected and excite the activity of both themselves and the two other nuclei involved in the NREM/REM oscillator. the LC and DR form a second functional unit. .The LC and DR are interconnected and inhibit the activity of both themselves and the LDT, PPT and BRF functional unit. This reciprocal set of interactions generatess a flip-flop switch that produces a roughly 90-minute oscillation in NREM and REM sleep.
  • The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) regulate the various sleep structures of the brain either directly by neural or chemical outputs, or indirectly by teh release of the pineal hormone melatonin. Melatonin is high throughout the night, and when administered has been shown to increase the propensity for sleep in humans.

Rhythms in Humans

Time

Performance

Disease

Biochemistry

00:00-02:00 ↑sleep initiation

↓gastric motility

↑gout

↑cerebral infarction

↑growth hormone

↑uric acid concentration

02:00-04:00 ↑gastric ulcer crises

↑gall bladder symptoms↑asthma

↑prolactin

↑glucose

↑triacyl glycerol

↑lymphocytes

↑eosinophils

04:00-06:00 ↓body temperature

↓concentration

↓deepest sleep

↓urine production

↑birth

↑gastric ulcer crises

↑SIDS

↑asthma

↑melatonin

↑ACTH

↑FSH

↑LH

↑TSH

↑glucose

06:00-08:00 ↑sleepiness/tiredness ↑rheumatoid arthritis

↑allergic rhinitis

↑migraines

↑angina/schaemia

↑stroke

↑death

↑cortisol

↑testosterone

↑plasma catecholamines

↑fight or flight system

↑platelet viscosity

↑blood viscosity

↓fibrinolytic activity

↑NK-Cell activity

08:00-10:00 ↑bowel movement

↑blood pressure

↑heart rate

↑myocardial infarction

↑death

10:00-12:00 ↑concentration

↑Short-term memory

↑logical reasoning

↑blood pressure

↑myocardial infarction

↑stroke

↑death

12:00-14:00 ↑concentration

↑short-term memory

↑logical reasoning

↑urine production

↑airway patency

14:00-16:00 ↑insulin
16:00-18:00 ↑osteoarthritis

↑fibromyalgia

18:00-20:00 ↑body temperature

↑alertness

↑cardiovascular efficiency

↑muscle strength

↑flexibility

↑grip strength

↓sleep propensity

20:00-22:00 ↑gastric acidity ↑skin sensitivity

↑menopausal flushes

303 Days to Dec 21st 2012


born on the 4th of January

27 September 2009

Babies born in Winter get short shrift.

a recent report notes that babies born during the winter months don’t perform as well (according to a number of metrics) as babies born during other months.

this relates to human gestation – where traditionally, babies would have been conceived near the full moon at the vernal equinox (humans most fertile time), and would be born close to the winter solstice. This would allow pregnant mothers to continue working through the harvest, with the later weeks of the pregnancy taking place after the harvest has come in.

babies are born year round, and as the report notes, children in the same family tend to be born around the same time of year (although YMMV).


Human Gestation, Time and the stages of becoming

26 November 2008

Gestation: counting by the calendar, daylight, moonlight

gestation-first-52-days

Chronobiology, the study of periodicity in living things, points towards human association with sunlight, and what is healthiest for the greatest majority of us. Sunlight is best at around dusk and dawn, and can be too harsh during the middle of the day (depends on where you live). Likewise, our bodies calibrate themselves to the seasons near the vernal equinox, in the twilight. Often there are festivals scheduled at this time, so that entire communities spend these hours outside together, synchonizing themselves not only with the seasons, but with one another. The Full Moon also sees its share of celebrants, and in days before electric lighting, it provided enough light for us to gather outside together.

In any case, our bodies are tied to the rhythm of the day, the moon (lunar month) and the seasons, regardless of where we live. These three characteristics define our understanding of time: the rotation of the Earth around its axis, the orbit of the Moon around the Earth: the orbit of the Earth~Moon around the Sun.

During our earliest moments of existence, just after the egg and sperm come together, we are under the influence of two different times: the time according to our mother’s body, which is tied to the day, moon and season, and; the time according to the development of ourselves from a single cell to an entire person in under 270 days.

The presumption is that midday, when the Sun is highest in the sky, and the Full Moon, and the Summer Solstice are all equivalent, in that they are the time at which we receive the most sunlight, and therefore the most energy from the Sun. In looking at the development in utero against the phases of the Moon, keep in mind that the waxing Moon is growing and getting brighter, therefore day~to~day, we receive more energy from it. Same as we approach the Summer Solstice and the Days grow longer.

Ideally, women menstruate at the New Moon, and ovulate at the Full Moon. Therefore, conception occurs at the Full Moon in all of the examples below. People are most fertile in the spring. The model pregnancy in this case takes place from the Full Moon at the Vernal Equinox (as occurred in 2008) to the birth just prior to the Winter Solstice.

3dayembryo

the Moon and Fertility:

from New Moon, when its gravitational pull is in the same direction as the Sun’s. It appears dark to us.

gestation-by-lunation

as First Quarter, the Moon’s gravity has now drawn away from the Sun’s so that it has become noticeably distinct. We see half of its surface illuminated by the Sun.

at the Full Moon, the draw of the Moon’s gravity is opposite that of the Sun’s. It’s entire face is illuminated.

at the Last Quarter, the Moon’s gravity returns towards that of the Sun, lessing. Half of its face is illuminated.

The Seasons and Fertility

gestation-by-season

The Seasons and Lunations

Here we have Year 8~XIV (dec 21st 2007 to dec 20th 2008) with the 12 lunations and when they occur relative to the months of the year. Following, we have the lunar cycle according to gestation beginning with the Full Moon at the Vernal Equinox.

year-8xiv-months-and-moonsYear 8~XIV, Months & Moons

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

gestation-by-months-and-moonsGestation from Vernal Equinox to Winter Solstice by the Moon

Gestation, Time and Becoming

The duration from conception to birth varies from person to person, however, it tends to falls within range of 9 months. 9 Lunar Months comes to 266 Days. The Maya tzolkin Calendar counts 260 Days, which also stands for the duration of gestation. The Lunar 266 Days lasts from Full Moon to Full Moon, the tzolkin follows its own metre based on 13 numbers and 20 glyphs.

Here is a breakdown of some of the occurrences in the first 60 days of gestation, which is about 2 lunar months, from full moon to fulll moon. 13 x 5 = 65 days, which is close to this on the 13~XX Calendar

Day

Development

0

Conception
1 1 cell (zygote) fetilisation – polar bodies form
2 2 cells (blastomeres) (30 hours), 4 cells (40 hours).
3 16-32 cells (morula) – morula passes out of fallopian
tubes
4 64 cells (blastocyst) – inner cavity (blastocele)cell mass inside blastocele (embryoblast)
5-6 the blastocyst implants itself in the blood-rich uteran wallcirculation between mother & blastocyst begins
7-12 trophoblast cells begin to form placenta with uterine wallembryoblast differentiates into upper, dark blue (epiblast –
becomes embryo) & lower, yellow layers of cells (hypoblast –
becomes yolk sac)
13 embryo anchored to the uterus via placentaembryo anchored to placenta by precursor to umbilical cord

yolk sac produces blood cells (without nuclei)

14 (gastrula) 2-layer embryonic disc forms the primitive streakthe outer layer of cells folds into the primitive streak
15 Mesoderm – middle layer – muscles, bones,
lymphatic tissue, spleen, blood cells, heart, lungs, reproductive
& excratory systems
16 Ectoderm – top layer – skin, hair, lenses of eyes,
lining of internal & external ear, nose, sinuses, mouth,
anus, tooth enamel, pituitary and mammary glands & all parts
of the nervous systemneural crest cells differentiate into neurons, glial cells,
epidermis pigment cells, various skeletal & connective
tissues of the head

Endoderm – inner layer – lining of lungs, tongue,
tonsils, urethra & associated glands, bladder & digestive
tract

17-19 ectoderm thickens to form neural plateconcave groove forms in neural plate (neural groove –

precursor to nervous system – one of the first organs to
develop)

blood cells develop & forming channels along epithelial
cells

19-21 mesoderm forms somites on either side of the neural groovefirst 3-pair somites appear at tail, forming towards head

head fold rises on either side of primitive streak

secondary blood vessels in placenta & chorion (2-layer
membrane)

muscle cells begin to fuse forming into 2 heart tubes

21-23 4-12-pair somiteseye & ear cells appear beside neural fold

2 heart tubes fuse together into an S-shape, and cardiac
muscle contraction begins

23-25 13-20 pairs somitesprimitive heart beating, major vessels along neural system

peristalsis begins

with 20 somites, the forebrain is completely closed

25-27 face & neck arches evident under developing forebrainblood system develops on surface of yolk sac, move to maternal
blood system

valves & septa appear in heart

liver cells appear (beginning of digestive system)

26-30 digestive epithelium layer differentiates into locations for
liver, lung, stomach & pancreas
31-35 mandibular & hyoid arches evident in headspinal cord wall in 3 zones (ventricular, mantle &
marginal)

ventricular – neurons, glial, & ependymal cells

mantle – neuron clusters

marginal – processes of neurons

pituitary precusor defined

lens vesicle nestled in optic cup opens to surface

nasal plate evident

digestive tube differentiates into esophagus & trachea

semilunar valves form in heart – 4 major subdivisions

right & left lung sacs lie on either side of esophagus

ureteric bud appears

metanephros – precursor to kidney, develops

upper limbs elongate & innervation begins

35-38 stomodeum (ectodermic precursor to mouth & oral cavity)swelling of external ear begin

lens pit has closed, retinal pigment may appear, lens fibres
form

depressions in nasal disc form into nasal pits

esophagus lengthens

blood flows through left & right streams

lobar buds appear in bronchial tree

intestines lengthen (in umbilicus)

ureteric bud lengthens, tip lengthening towards kidney

lower limb buds lengthen & innervate

37-42 cerebral hemispheres evidenthindbrain develops (responsible for heart, breath &
muscle)

future mandible visible

nasal pits rotate to face ventrally

cardiac tube divides into aortic & pulmonary channels

mammary tissues begin to mature

mesentery defined

hand region differentiates

lower limb sections evident

42-44 jaw & facial muscles developingolfactory bulb forms

teeth buds begin forms

pituitary forms

trachea, larynx & bronchi system forms

heart separates into 4 chambers

diaphragm forms

intestines develop in umbilical cord

primitive germ cells forms at genital area

hand region forming digital plate

digital rays appear in foot plates

44-48 intersections of nerve networks (plexuses) develop in scalp
regioneyes pigmented

eyelids developing

trunk of pulmonary artery separates from trunk of aorta

nipples appear

kidneys produce first urine

urogenital & anal membranes appear

arms at proper location, hand plates finish in another 2 days.

ossification of the skeleton begins

48-51 first detectable brain wavessemicircular canals form in inner ear

septum primum fuses with septum intermedium in the heart

gonads form

legs now at proper location, toes almost completed

bone cartilage solidifies

muscles develop & strengthen

51-53 Brain connected by nerves & muscles – spontaneous
movementnasal openings & tip of nose fully formed

anal membrane perforated

urogenital membranes differentiate

skin folds between future toes

53-54 tongue development finishesintestines migrate from umbilical cord to embryo
54-56 upper lip fully formedbrain can move muscles

clitoris begins to form

primary ossification in long bones (upper limbs first)

56-60 External ear completely developedeyes cosed, retina fully pigmented

taste buds form

primary teeth at cap stage

bones of palate fuse

scalp plexus reaches head vertex

intestines migrate into body cavity

toes no longer webbed all digits fully distinct

thin precursor to skin covers ectoderm of embryo

tail has disappeared

B0003308 6 day old human embryo implanting - coloured

that’s a human embryo folks.


Counting by Quarters

13 November 2008

Annual Quarters of 13 Weeks and how they work well with 13 months.

13-month-n-numbered

TheAbysmal 13 Months for the Northern Year. Click on the image to get the Southern Hemisphere’s Year at the equivalent line of latitude. The 52~week year can also be divided into 4 Quarters of 91 days, or 13 weeks. A similar structure as the months are applied for the weeks of each quarter, staring with the Winter Solstice and through the year. clockwise for the North, Counter~clockwise for the South.

As with all of the numbering for the 52~Week Year, it begins with 0, and continues in increments of 1. Month 0, Day 0. Weeks are only counted relative to the Year, 0~51, to avoid confusion with weeks/month or weeks/quarter.

The Four Quarters of the Year

Quarter 0 runs from the Northern Winter Solstice to the Vernal Equinox. In the South, it’s the Summer Solstice to the Autumnal Equinox.

quarter0-n

Quarter 1 runs from the Northern Vernal Equinox to the Summer Solstice. In the South, from the Autumnal Equinox to the Winter Solstice.

quarter1-n

Quarter 2 begins the second half of the year with the Northern Summer Solstice and continues to the Autumnal Equinox. In the South, it begins with the Winter Solstice and continues to the Vernal Equinox.

quarter2-n

Finally, Quarter 3 runs from the Northern Autumnal Equinox to the Winter Solstice. In the South, it runs from the Vernal Equinox to the Summer Solstice.

quarter3-n

One argument in favour of the Gregorian Calendar is the division of the year into four quarters of 3 months each. The months have an irregular number of days 90/91, 91, 92, 92.  The weeks do not fit into the Gregorian Calendar neatly.

Measuring a 52~Week Year seems relatively easy, given the number of means by which the weeks can be divided. Two even halves of 26 Weeks (182 Days) from solstice to solstice, or Quarters of 13 Weeks (91 Days), or Months of 4 Weeks (28 Days), or Fortnights of 2 Weeks (14 Days).

This regulates the weekly, biweekly (fortnightly), montly, quarterly and annual activities. This would simplify banking, payroll, accounting, anything with a regular bill, typically monthly. It could all be scheduled by the week, in even measurements.

theAbysmal Calendar redefines the Month, Quarter and Year according to 52~Weeks, which standardizes their duration: every month is 28 days, every quarter 91, every year 364 +1.


Western Standard Time

11 November 2008

comparing the days as organised by Astronomy, Astrology, and two Calendars.

The small circles in the following diagrams are the 365 days of the year. The darkest of these circles is the Winter Solstice, the longest night, and the lightest of these circles is the Summer Solstice, the longest day. The others are shades of grey corresponding to the amount of daylight they receive at 49 degrees N Latitude.

but first, the KEY to the symbols:

zodiac-keyThe image below compares the four different dating systems. The first is the astronomical boundaries for the thirteen constellations of the Zodiac. The number of Days in each period corresponds to the number of days the Sun appears to pass through the constellation. It begins on April 19th. The second image has the astrological boundaries for the 12 signs of the zodiac, which begins on March 21st.

daylight-by-astronomydaylight-by-astrology

The zodiac really differs greatly. the Astronomical boundaries are greatly varied. The Sun takes 45 days to pass through Virgo, and only 7 to pass through Scorpio. The 12 astrological periods are closer to even, but remain varied from 29 to 32 days. With respect to daylight, the astrological model uses the cardinal points, such that Aries begins on the Vernal Equinox.  The astronomical boundaries shift back by one day every 72~3 years. Thus what was announced as April 19th in 1937 has likely now shifted to April 20th.

The first column are the 12 months of the Gregorian calendar, begins January 1st. Finally, the 13 months of theAbysmal Calendar, which begins on December 21st.

daylight-by-gregoriandayblight-by-theabysmal

Here we see the relative length of the months in either case. The daylight is very similar, as the new year in both these cases only differs by 10 days.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Because of the cyclical nature of the year, a circular analysis might be helpful In each case, the Winter Solstice is at the bottom, the Equinoxes to either side, and the Summer Solstice towards the top.

Astronomical Boundaries

daylight-wheel-astronomy

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Astrological Boundaries

daylight-wheel-astrology~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Gregorian Months

daylight-wheel-gregorian~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

theAbysmal Months