theAbysmal 52~Week Year

28 November 2008

Calendar Reform to simplify  our lives and enrichen our culture.

52-week-year

The 52~Weeks of the Year can be divided into 13 Months of 4 weeks each, or 4 Quarters of 13 Weeks. It doesn’t retain the Months~to~Quarters symmetry that the Gregorian CE Calendar has, however, the above illustrates other, more pervasive symmetries that make this a more regular means of arranging the Days.

Calendar Reform is meant to simplify and enrichen our lives. The regular ratio of Weeks~to~Months~to~Quarters creates a perpetual Year.

The advantages include:

  • clearly defined periods Months = 4 Weeks = 28 Days, Quarters = 13 Weeks = 91 Days
  • people will be able to schedule ahead without having to consult a calendar
  • makes accounting easier, which will make commerce smoother, creating a solid foundation of steady progression upon which to build.
  • numbered Weeks, Months, Quarters and Years allows every community of Calendar Users to name them as they will, which encourages a richer cultural diversity, while still allowing us to communicate dates clearly.
  • These arrangements of 52 Weeks repeat themselves annually, whereas with the Gregorian Calendar, the cycles of Weekdays and Months repeats themselves every 400 Years (due to the Leap Year rule).

Year 9~XIX Lunation 0

27 November 2008

The Moon augurs the New Year to come

lunation0

24 Days until the New Year from 8~XIV to 9~XIX. The new year has a total of 13 Lunations numbered 0~12.


Human Gestation, Time and the stages of becoming

26 November 2008

Gestation: counting by the calendar, daylight, moonlight

gestation-first-52-days

Chronobiology, the study of periodicity in living things, points towards human association with sunlight, and what is healthiest for the greatest majority of us. Sunlight is best at around dusk and dawn, and can be too harsh during the middle of the day (depends on where you live). Likewise, our bodies calibrate themselves to the seasons near the vernal equinox, in the twilight. Often there are festivals scheduled at this time, so that entire communities spend these hours outside together, synchonizing themselves not only with the seasons, but with one another. The Full Moon also sees its share of celebrants, and in days before electric lighting, it provided enough light for us to gather outside together.

In any case, our bodies are tied to the rhythm of the day, the moon (lunar month) and the seasons, regardless of where we live. These three characteristics define our understanding of time: the rotation of the Earth around its axis, the orbit of the Moon around the Earth: the orbit of the Earth~Moon around the Sun.

During our earliest moments of existence, just after the egg and sperm come together, we are under the influence of two different times: the time according to our mother’s body, which is tied to the day, moon and season, and; the time according to the development of ourselves from a single cell to an entire person in under 270 days.

The presumption is that midday, when the Sun is highest in the sky, and the Full Moon, and the Summer Solstice are all equivalent, in that they are the time at which we receive the most sunlight, and therefore the most energy from the Sun. In looking at the development in utero against the phases of the Moon, keep in mind that the waxing Moon is growing and getting brighter, therefore day~to~day, we receive more energy from it. Same as we approach the Summer Solstice and the Days grow longer.

Ideally, women menstruate at the New Moon, and ovulate at the Full Moon. Therefore, conception occurs at the Full Moon in all of the examples below. People are most fertile in the spring. The model pregnancy in this case takes place from the Full Moon at the Vernal Equinox (as occurred in 2008) to the birth just prior to the Winter Solstice.

3dayembryo

the Moon and Fertility:

from New Moon, when its gravitational pull is in the same direction as the Sun’s. It appears dark to us.

gestation-by-lunation

as First Quarter, the Moon’s gravity has now drawn away from the Sun’s so that it has become noticeably distinct. We see half of its surface illuminated by the Sun.

at the Full Moon, the draw of the Moon’s gravity is opposite that of the Sun’s. It’s entire face is illuminated.

at the Last Quarter, the Moon’s gravity returns towards that of the Sun, lessing. Half of its face is illuminated.

The Seasons and Fertility

gestation-by-season

The Seasons and Lunations

Here we have Year 8~XIV (dec 21st 2007 to dec 20th 2008) with the 12 lunations and when they occur relative to the months of the year. Following, we have the lunar cycle according to gestation beginning with the Full Moon at the Vernal Equinox.

year-8xiv-months-and-moonsYear 8~XIV, Months & Moons

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

gestation-by-months-and-moonsGestation from Vernal Equinox to Winter Solstice by the Moon

Gestation, Time and Becoming

The duration from conception to birth varies from person to person, however, it tends to falls within range of 9 months. 9 Lunar Months comes to 266 Days. The Maya tzolkin Calendar counts 260 Days, which also stands for the duration of gestation. The Lunar 266 Days lasts from Full Moon to Full Moon, the tzolkin follows its own metre based on 13 numbers and 20 glyphs.

Here is a breakdown of some of the occurrences in the first 60 days of gestation, which is about 2 lunar months, from full moon to fulll moon. 13 x 5 = 65 days, which is close to this on the 13~XX Calendar

Day

Development

0

Conception
1 1 cell (zygote) fetilisation – polar bodies form
2 2 cells (blastomeres) (30 hours), 4 cells (40 hours).
3 16-32 cells (morula) – morula passes out of fallopian
tubes
4 64 cells (blastocyst) – inner cavity (blastocele)cell mass inside blastocele (embryoblast)
5-6 the blastocyst implants itself in the blood-rich uteran wallcirculation between mother & blastocyst begins
7-12 trophoblast cells begin to form placenta with uterine wallembryoblast differentiates into upper, dark blue (epiblast –
becomes embryo) & lower, yellow layers of cells (hypoblast –
becomes yolk sac)
13 embryo anchored to the uterus via placentaembryo anchored to placenta by precursor to umbilical cord

yolk sac produces blood cells (without nuclei)

14 (gastrula) 2-layer embryonic disc forms the primitive streakthe outer layer of cells folds into the primitive streak
15 Mesoderm – middle layer – muscles, bones,
lymphatic tissue, spleen, blood cells, heart, lungs, reproductive
& excratory systems
16 Ectoderm – top layer – skin, hair, lenses of eyes,
lining of internal & external ear, nose, sinuses, mouth,
anus, tooth enamel, pituitary and mammary glands & all parts
of the nervous systemneural crest cells differentiate into neurons, glial cells,
epidermis pigment cells, various skeletal & connective
tissues of the head

Endoderm – inner layer – lining of lungs, tongue,
tonsils, urethra & associated glands, bladder & digestive
tract

17-19 ectoderm thickens to form neural plateconcave groove forms in neural plate (neural groove –

precursor to nervous system – one of the first organs to
develop)

blood cells develop & forming channels along epithelial
cells

19-21 mesoderm forms somites on either side of the neural groovefirst 3-pair somites appear at tail, forming towards head

head fold rises on either side of primitive streak

secondary blood vessels in placenta & chorion (2-layer
membrane)

muscle cells begin to fuse forming into 2 heart tubes

21-23 4-12-pair somiteseye & ear cells appear beside neural fold

2 heart tubes fuse together into an S-shape, and cardiac
muscle contraction begins

23-25 13-20 pairs somitesprimitive heart beating, major vessels along neural system

peristalsis begins

with 20 somites, the forebrain is completely closed

25-27 face & neck arches evident under developing forebrainblood system develops on surface of yolk sac, move to maternal
blood system

valves & septa appear in heart

liver cells appear (beginning of digestive system)

26-30 digestive epithelium layer differentiates into locations for
liver, lung, stomach & pancreas
31-35 mandibular & hyoid arches evident in headspinal cord wall in 3 zones (ventricular, mantle &
marginal)

ventricular – neurons, glial, & ependymal cells

mantle – neuron clusters

marginal – processes of neurons

pituitary precusor defined

lens vesicle nestled in optic cup opens to surface

nasal plate evident

digestive tube differentiates into esophagus & trachea

semilunar valves form in heart – 4 major subdivisions

right & left lung sacs lie on either side of esophagus

ureteric bud appears

metanephros – precursor to kidney, develops

upper limbs elongate & innervation begins

35-38 stomodeum (ectodermic precursor to mouth & oral cavity)swelling of external ear begin

lens pit has closed, retinal pigment may appear, lens fibres
form

depressions in nasal disc form into nasal pits

esophagus lengthens

blood flows through left & right streams

lobar buds appear in bronchial tree

intestines lengthen (in umbilicus)

ureteric bud lengthens, tip lengthening towards kidney

lower limb buds lengthen & innervate

37-42 cerebral hemispheres evidenthindbrain develops (responsible for heart, breath &
muscle)

future mandible visible

nasal pits rotate to face ventrally

cardiac tube divides into aortic & pulmonary channels

mammary tissues begin to mature

mesentery defined

hand region differentiates

lower limb sections evident

42-44 jaw & facial muscles developingolfactory bulb forms

teeth buds begin forms

pituitary forms

trachea, larynx & bronchi system forms

heart separates into 4 chambers

diaphragm forms

intestines develop in umbilical cord

primitive germ cells forms at genital area

hand region forming digital plate

digital rays appear in foot plates

44-48 intersections of nerve networks (plexuses) develop in scalp
regioneyes pigmented

eyelids developing

trunk of pulmonary artery separates from trunk of aorta

nipples appear

kidneys produce first urine

urogenital & anal membranes appear

arms at proper location, hand plates finish in another 2 days.

ossification of the skeleton begins

48-51 first detectable brain wavessemicircular canals form in inner ear

septum primum fuses with septum intermedium in the heart

gonads form

legs now at proper location, toes almost completed

bone cartilage solidifies

muscles develop & strengthen

51-53 Brain connected by nerves & muscles – spontaneous
movementnasal openings & tip of nose fully formed

anal membrane perforated

urogenital membranes differentiate

skin folds between future toes

53-54 tongue development finishesintestines migrate from umbilical cord to embryo
54-56 upper lip fully formedbrain can move muscles

clitoris begins to form

primary ossification in long bones (upper limbs first)

56-60 External ear completely developedeyes cosed, retina fully pigmented

taste buds form

primary teeth at cap stage

bones of palate fuse

scalp plexus reaches head vertex

intestines migrate into body cavity

toes no longer webbed all digits fully distinct

thin precursor to skin covers ectoderm of embryo

tail has disappeared

B0003308 6 day old human embryo implanting - coloured

that’s a human embryo folks.


theAbysmal Calendar vs the Gregorian

26 November 2008

A Calendar Challenger, one calendar at a time.

This challenge, of putting up theAbysmal vs all of the rest of proposed and existing calendars is strictly in its role as the world’s calendar. theAbysmal was designed to facilitate the translation of dates between calendars, so that people following the Moon can more easily figure out what a day on a solar calendar may be.

note: that Common Era Calendar refers to the Gregorian Calendar using CE & BCE instead of AD & BC, but otherwise identical. Here I’ll just call it the Gregorian CE.

theabysmal-vs-gregorian

from the Calendars Wikia

First: Reasons for retaining the Gregorian CE calendar:

1. The calendar year stays in sync fairly well with the seasonal year. More exactly, the vernal equinox always occurs during a 51-hour period spread over March 19, 20 and 21.
2. Everyone is familiar with it.
3. The rules of the calendar are already embedded in innumerable computer programs.
4. The calendar is an integral part of the vernacular of many cultures.
5. It maintains an uninterrupted seven-day week, which is important to religious groups.
6. It may be difficult to promulgate changes to the calendar because all countries that use it would need to agree to make a change. The Gregorian calendar took nearly 350 years to be adopted by all countries that previously used the Julian calendar.

Addressing these points in kind, allow me to retort:

1. theAbysmal Calendar is more affixed to the seasons throughout the year. Each quarter starts and ends on or about either Solstice or Equinox.
2. theAbysmal uses the 7-Day Market Week, as the world is scheduled most broadly by the week. There will be no disruption in the flow of weekdays in the implementation of theAbysmal Calendar on Saturday December 22nd, 2012 CE.
3. theAbysmal Calendar begins a linear count of seconds, minutes and days as of its implementation, which is a simple arithmetic step away from the Unix Time Code and Julian Date already used in many cases. Also, the Internet broadcasts a standardized time, such that it would be a relatively easy modification to one’s operating system.
4. theAbysmal Calendar allows for the naming of days, months and so on as suits each culture,  and the observation of religious and secular calendars may go on with no disruption to any of the vernacular. (On a side note, the progression of days in September align with the numbers in Month 9 of theAbysmal Calendar. Thus, 9/11 becomes Month 9 Day 11.)
5. theAbysmal Calendar has two days that are not weekdays, but again, as it doesn’t intend to replace any religious calendars, each may continue the uninterrupted week as they will.
6. theAbysmal Calendar is using the Internet to promote itself, and is free for download, printing and spreading around free of charge (although the owner of theAbysmal’s images reserves the rights to make a living off of them). It was designed for all of the people of the world. It will allow the varied calendars of the world to continue being used, while translating between one and the other with greater ease.

pope-gregory-xiii

Second: Reasons for replacing the Gregorian CE (as the global calendar only):

1. The structure of the months is irregular, with month lengths ranging arbitrarily from 28 days to 31 days.
2. The leap year rule is hard for many people to understand: “An extra day is added at the end of the second month every four years, except in years whose number is divisible by 100 except in years whose number is divisible by 400.”
3. The conventional 7-day-week cycle does not fit exactly into a Common Era year (there are always one or two days left over). This means that it is difficult to know which day of the week a CE date falls on.
4. The irregularity of the structure of the CE Calendar makes it difficult to formulate schedules of events occurring on certain days of the week which can be re‑used from year to year.
5. That irregularity also makes it very difficult to design schedules which can be used in any quarter (of three months), term (of four months) or semester (of six months).
6. Despite the existence of a proposed standard way of writing CE dates (the ISO 8601 date format) such dates are currently expressed mainly either as month-day-year (in the U.S.) or day-month-year (in Europe and most of the rest of the world). This creates major confusion for people in one part of the world reading dates written by and for people in another part of the world.
7. The months of the CE Calendar, although called “months”, have no relation to the lunar cycles. The sequence of months and the sequence of lunations are completely unrelated, and a new moon or a full moon can occur on any day of the CE month.
8. The leap year rules cause the timing of the equinoxes and solstices to vary by about 51 hours, which can be reduced if alternative leap year rules were adopted.
9. The intercalary day is inserted at the end of the second month instead of at the end of the year, which adds complexity to various date calculations. In particular, the number of days between a particular date in January or February and a particular date after the end of February is not constant.

Once again, theAbysmal retort:

1. theAbysmal months are 4 Weeks of 28 Days each.
2. The Leap Year Day isn’t a weekday, so its observation doesn’t disrupt the perpetual 52 Weeks. The rule is a little easier than the Gregorian CE’s and more accurate. Observe a Leap Year Day every 4 Years with an exception every 128 Years.
3. Each Year, Quarter, Month and Week begin on Saturday and end on Friday. This makes future scheduling easier, and allows people to think ahead without having to consult an external calendar.
4. See point 3 above.
5. theAbysmal 52~Week Year divides evenly into Months of 4 Weeks, Quarters of 13 Weeks, and Semesters of 26 Weeks.
6. theAbysmal Date format can be introduced with set, universal rules, which will prevent such difference of standards.
7. theAbysmal Calendar follows both Lunations and Months
8. theAbysmal 52~Weeks observes a Friday and Saturday on or about each of the Cardinal Dates. theAbysmal Lunar Calendar serves as the observational Calendar, recording actual dates of astronomical phenomena.
9. theAbysmal Leap Year Day falls on the Day before New Year’s Day. Neither are a Weekday, and occur after the last Friday of one Year, and the first Saturday of the next (Leap Year on dec 20th, New Year on dec 21st).

It appears that theAbysmal has addressed all of the above issues in some capacity. The one concern is that it may appear too complex, when truly its usage can be quite simple. One doesn’t need to observe all of theAbysmal Calendar’s cycles and time periods, but simply the ones that are relevant. One doesn’t need to observe the Lunation and the Month, or the 260~Day Calendar at all. They are simply options for consideration.

There are other points of consideration with respect to theAbysmal:

10. theAbysmal Calendar has an innate 13~base symmetry between the 260~Day (13×20), the 52~Week Year (13×4), the Lunar (Leap Years have 13 Lunations), and the 13 Constellations through which the Sun travels.
11. theAbysmal 260~Days weave an annual progression to each Day, so that with practice, we can think in terms of “this day next year, and this day last year.”
12. theAbysmal harmonises aspects from many of the world’s calendars including: Hebrew (weekdays with Latin~ and Teutonic~derived names), Buddhist Lunar (Lunar New Year at Winter Solstice), the Maya & Mexica (the 260~Days), Jose Arguelles & the law of time foundation (the 13~Moon Calendar), the Chinese (aligning the four directions with North at the bottom, the I~Ching, the tao), and the Mesopotamian (astrological & astronomical symbols).
13. theAbysmal Calendar begins each of its cycles (with the exception of the Year in the Southern Hemisphere) in darkness. Midnight for the Day, New Moon for the Lunation, Winter Solstice for the Year. As much as our universe and we ourselves developed and grew out of darkness (the unknown, the unknowable), so does the measures of time in this calendar.
0. theAbysmal Calendar has a Year 0 (as well as a Quarter 0, Lunation 0, Month 0, Week 0 and Day 0), which the Gregorian CE lacks altogether. This changes our system from a chronology (first, second, third day of the month) to a numbering, where the number indicates the amount of time completed, not that taking place. The Day, Month, Week etc… taking place includes “now” which is really when all time happens.

mycelia-black


Month 12 Year 8~XIV

21 November 2008

last Month of the Year ~ 208 Weeks until 2012.

month12

Here’s looking forward to the Year shedding it’s skin to begin again.

Month 11 Day 4 coincides with the New Moon that begins Lunation 0 for the upcoming Year 9~XIX.

Day 27, the last Friday of the Year bears 9~XIX, the same as that for the upcoming Year.  The numbers progress from 1~13, and the glyphs between IV, IX, XIV, X.


Counting by Quarters

13 November 2008

Annual Quarters of 13 Weeks and how they work well with 13 months.

13-month-n-numbered

TheAbysmal 13 Months for the Northern Year. Click on the image to get the Southern Hemisphere’s Year at the equivalent line of latitude. The 52~week year can also be divided into 4 Quarters of 91 days, or 13 weeks. A similar structure as the months are applied for the weeks of each quarter, staring with the Winter Solstice and through the year. clockwise for the North, Counter~clockwise for the South.

As with all of the numbering for the 52~Week Year, it begins with 0, and continues in increments of 1. Month 0, Day 0. Weeks are only counted relative to the Year, 0~51, to avoid confusion with weeks/month or weeks/quarter.

The Four Quarters of the Year

Quarter 0 runs from the Northern Winter Solstice to the Vernal Equinox. In the South, it’s the Summer Solstice to the Autumnal Equinox.

quarter0-n

Quarter 1 runs from the Northern Vernal Equinox to the Summer Solstice. In the South, from the Autumnal Equinox to the Winter Solstice.

quarter1-n

Quarter 2 begins the second half of the year with the Northern Summer Solstice and continues to the Autumnal Equinox. In the South, it begins with the Winter Solstice and continues to the Vernal Equinox.

quarter2-n

Finally, Quarter 3 runs from the Northern Autumnal Equinox to the Winter Solstice. In the South, it runs from the Vernal Equinox to the Summer Solstice.

quarter3-n

One argument in favour of the Gregorian Calendar is the division of the year into four quarters of 3 months each. The months have an irregular number of days 90/91, 91, 92, 92.  The weeks do not fit into the Gregorian Calendar neatly.

Measuring a 52~Week Year seems relatively easy, given the number of means by which the weeks can be divided. Two even halves of 26 Weeks (182 Days) from solstice to solstice, or Quarters of 13 Weeks (91 Days), or Months of 4 Weeks (28 Days), or Fortnights of 2 Weeks (14 Days).

This regulates the weekly, biweekly (fortnightly), montly, quarterly and annual activities. This would simplify banking, payroll, accounting, anything with a regular bill, typically monthly. It could all be scheduled by the week, in even measurements.

theAbysmal Calendar redefines the Month, Quarter and Year according to 52~Weeks, which standardizes their duration: every month is 28 days, every quarter 91, every year 364 +1.


A different face of time

12 November 2008

Jacek Yerka‘s take on the issue.

nauka_chodzeniaThis particular creature is hereby nominated as theAbysmal’s official ambassador to the realms of the surreal. I see an innate tension in this image, between the stress to be on time and live by the clock against the maternal instinct in taking all the time necessary to do a million things.